Saint Leo the Great, also known as Pope Saint Leo I, was born into a Roman aristocratic family. For the emperor, see, Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana), p. 107, Pope Benedict XVI, "Saint Leo the Great", General Audience, 5 March 2008, Libreria Editrice Vaticana. "Leo the Great", in: A. DiBerardino: "Patrology IV", Westminster ML 1994, pp. Pope Benedict XVI said that Leo's papacy "was undoubtedly one of the most important in the Church's history. You may also like. This is the true faith. Leo demanded of the emperor that an ecumenical council should be held in Italy, and in the meantime, at a Roman synod in October 449, repudiated all the decisions of the "Robber Synod". The Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council, dealt primarily with Christology, and elucidated the orthodox definition of Christ's being as the hypostatic union of two natures, divine and human, united in one person, "with neither confusion nor division". The bishop of Rome had gradually become viewed as the chief patriarch in the Christian Church. Leo was a significant contributor to the centralisation of spiritual authority within the Church and in reaffirming papal authority. In a letter of about 446 to a successor bishop of Thessalonica, Anastasius, Leo reproached him for the way he had treated one of the metropolitan bishops subject to him; after giving various instructions about the functions entrusted to Anastasius and stressing that certain powers were reserved to the pope himself, Leo wrote: "The care of the universal Church should converge towards Peter's one seat, and nothing anywhere should be separated from its Head. Pope Innocent I had constituted the metropolitan of Thessalonica his vicar, in order to oppose the growing influence of the patriarch of Constantinople in the area. He is also a Doctor of the Church, most remembered theologically for issuing the Tome of Leo, a document which was a major foundation to the debates of the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon. Leo's intercession could not prevent the sack of the city by the Vandal King Genseric in 455, but murder and arson were repressed by his influence. If Christ were divine only, everything about him would be divine. About Pope St. Leo the Great. He became a deacon and occupied a important position with St. Cyril of Alexandria. Let the sinner be glad in that he is invited to pardon. THE DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH - POPE ST. LEO THE GREAT DVD Come face-to-face with the saints who shaped the Church into what it is today. Wherefore, as it is quite clear that these two seasons [Easter and Pentecost] of which we have been speaking are the rightful ones for baptizing the elect in Church, we admonish you, beloved, not to associate other days with this observance. He was also a defender against the heresy of Nestorius. He takes up this topic also in many of his sermons, and over the years, he further develops his own original concepts. Thus, the office of the Roman bishop, was grounded on the special relationship between Christ and Peter, a relationship that cannot be repeated per se; therefore, Leo depended on Peter's mediation, his assistance and his example in order to be able to adequately fulfill his role and exercise his authority as the Bishop of Rome, both in the city and beyond. [2], According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was a native of Tuscany. Leo died in the year 461. Piously and truly did Leo teach, so taught Cyril. A trustworthy chronicle hands down another account which does not conflict with the fact that an embassy was sent, but evidently furnishes the true reasons which moved Attila to receive it favourably. In Leo's eyes the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon acquired their validity from his confirmation. In 445, Leo disputed with Patriarch Dioscorus, Cyril of Alexandria's successor as Patriarch of Alexandria, insisting that the ecclesiastical practice of his see should follow that of Rome on the basis that Mark the Evangelist, the disciple of Peter the Apostle and the founder of the Alexandrian Church, could have had no other tradition than that of the prince of the apostles. Pope Leo is one of them. There is for all one common measure of joy, because as our Lord the destroyer of sin and death finds none free from charge, so is He come to free us all. [23] Some traditionalist Catholics continue to observe pre-1970 versions of that calendar. Start studying Pope St. Leo the Great. [5], From a pastoral perspective, he galvanized charitable works in a Rome beset by famines, an influx of refugees, and poverty. B. He was still a deacon when he was elected pope. Recollect that thou wert rescued from the power of darkness and brought out into God’s light and kingdom. Leo was born in AD 400 in Tuscany, Italy. Leo defends the true divinity and the true humanity of the one Christ against heretical one-sidedness. It is unreasonable to suppose that this heathen king would have cared for the thunders or persuasions of the Church. Nov 10 – St Leo the Great, (1) pope and doctor of the Church (400-461) 10 November, 2012 . He allegedly demanded that the sister of the reigning Emperor Valentinian III be sent to him with a dowry. No one is kept from sharing in this happiness. He was an Italian aristocrat, and was the first pope to have been called "the Great". Everlasting be the memory of Cyril. Leo did, however, assist in rebuilding the city of Rome, restoring key places such as Saint Peter's.[19]. Remember the Head and the Body of which thou art a member. Letter XIV, Leo to Anastasius, (Charles Lett Feltoe, tr.). Pope St. Leo the Great died on Nov. 10, 461. The fact that the African province of Mauretania Caesariensis had been preserved to the empire and thus to the Nicene faith during the Vandal invasion and, in its isolation, was disposed to rest on outside support, gave Leo an opportunity to assert his authority there. Pope Leo the Great held the Chair of St. Peter from 440 to 461, and from it proclaimed and projected the elect holiness of Rome, calling it a royal city and, by virtue of the See of St. Peter, the head of the world, ruling by moral faith and religion rather than military force and dominion. What is true of Peter is true also of his successors. Near the end of the reign of Pope Sixtus III, Leo was dispatched at the request of Emperor Valentinian III to settle a dispute between Aëtius, one of Gaul's chief military commanders, and the chief magistrate Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus. It was followed by a major schism associated with Monophysitism, Miaphysitism and Dyophysitism. "[1], He was a Roman aristocrat, and was the first pope to have been called "the Great". While the Vandals plundered the city, the gesture nevertheless prevented Rome from being burned and assured that the Basilicas of St Peter, St Paul and St John, in which part of the terrified population sought refuge, were spared. In fact, he was the first pope to be given the title "the Great." [4], Manichaeans fleeing the Vandals had come to Rome in 439 and secretly organized there; Leo learned of it around 443, and proceeded against them by holding a public debate with their representatives, burning their books and writing letters of warning to the Italian bishops. Please consider supporting OrthodoxWiki. Explore through historical reenactments and expert commentary, the lives of the courageous men and women, who stood firm in their faith against all odds. St. Leo IX, original name Bruno, Graf (count) von Egisheim und Dagsburg, (born June 21, 1002, Egisheim, Alsace, Upper Lorraine [now Eguisheim, France]—died April 19, 1054, Rome [Italy]; feast day April 19), head of the medieval Latin church (1049–54), during whose reign the papacy became the focal point of western Europe and the great East-West Schism of 1054 became inevitable. All the bishops present at the Council were in agreement with this teaching, and so the heretics Eutyches and Dioscorus were excommunicated from the Church. He called himself the (unworthy) heir and deputy (vicarius) of Peter, having received his apostolic authority and being obliged to follow his example. From Pope Leo the Great’s Sermon on the Passion (8): O ur understanding, which is enlightened by the Spirit of truth, should receive with purity and freedom of heart the glory of the cross as it shines in heaven and on earth. By 431, as a deacon, he was sufficiently well known outside of Rome that John Cassian dedicated to him the treatise against Nestorius written at Leo's suggestion. According to Leo and several Church Fathers as well as certain interpretations of the Scriptures, the Church is built upon Peter, in pursuance of the promise of Matthew 16:16–19. In 455, Leo confronted the Vandal leader Genseric during an attack on Rome, and obtained a guarantee of safety for many of his people and the churches where they were hiding. On several occasions, Leo was asked to arbitrate disputes in Gaul. Celebrate our Church family. Leo and Cyril taught the same thing, anathema to him who does not so believe. Eutyches, in the beginning of the conflict, appealed to Leo and took refuge with him on his condemnation by Flavian, but on receiving full information from Flavian, Leo took his side decisively. Peter has spoken thus through Leo. [citation needed], Pope Benedict XVI said that Leo's papacy "...was undoubtedly one of the most important in the Church's history."[1]. While there, news reached Leo that Pope Sixtus III had died and Leo had been elected to replace him. His literary and theological legacy is comprised of 96 sermons and 143 letters, of which the best known is his Epistle to St. Flavian. This page has been accessed 54,273 times. Leo combined pastoral attentiveness with uncompromising firmness in the confession of the Faith. Writing in the early 20th century, John B. At the Second Council of Ephesus in 449, Leo's representatives delivered his famous Tome, a statement of the faith of the Roman Church in the form of a letter addressed to Archbishop Flavian of Constantinople, which repeats, in close adherence to Augustine of Hippo, the formulas of western Christology. Pope Benedict XVI said that Leo's papacy "was undoubtedly one of the most important in the Church's history." Leo’s pontificate was marked by a number of firsts: He was the first Pope named Leo, and the first Pope to be remembered as “the Great” (later, Gregory I and Nicholas I would also be accorded the honour). You can use this novena to seek intercession from this holy Pope in your life! In 1754 Pope Benedict XIV proclaimed Leo I a Doctor of the Church. If his host was suffering from pestilence, and if troops arrived from the east, we can understand that Attila was forced to withdraw. "Extracts from the Acts: Session II (cont. This assertion is commonly referred to as the doctrine of Petrine supremacy. These are the things Dioscorus hid away. Pope Leo I was born Leo, in 400 A.D., in Tuscany, Western Roman Empire. His attitude was as decided against the Priscillianists. In the letter of Leo, the Orthodox teaching about the two natures of Christ, divine and human, was set forth. Subsequently, through numerous letters addressed to bishops and members of the imperial family, Leo incessantly worked for the propagation and universal reception of the faith in Christ as defined by Chalcedon, also in the eastern part of the Roman empire. Flavian had suffered for Orthodoxy under the Robber Council of Ephesus in the year 449. Pope St. Leo the Great was born around the year 400. Because of the earlier line of division between the western and eastern parts of the Roman Empire, Illyria was ecclesiastically subject to Rome. Featuring the Church Fathers, Catholic Encyclopedia, Summa Theologica and more. 1 and 2/1, Westminster ML 1988/1987 (2nd revised edition). "Pope St. Leo I (the Great)." Pope St. Leo the Great is well-known for issuing a tome of theological writings and for persuading Attila the Hun to abandon an attack on Italy. It is also certain that Attila suddenly retreated. Those of us who are orthodox thus believe. The council did not read the letter nor did it pay any attention to the protests of Leo's legates but deposed Flavian and Eusebius of Dorylaeum, who appealed to Rome. Leo is also the first Pope whose sermons have come down to us. He is perhaps best known for having met Attila the Hun in 452 and allegedly persuaded him to turn back from his invasion of Italy. [3] He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by Pope Benedict XIV in 1754. The acts of the council report: "After the reading of the foregoing epistle, the most reverend bishops cried out: This is the faith of the fathers, this is the faith of the Apostles. Bury remarked: The fact of the embassy cannot be doubted. He was well-educated, but yearned for the spiritual life. J. The question of Honoria was left unsettled, and he threatened that he would come again and do worse things in Italy unless she were given up with the due portion of the Imperial possessions.[18]. When the Vandal leader Genseric occupied Rome in 455, the Pope confronted him, unarmed, and obtained a guarantee of safety for many of the city’s inhabitants and the churches to which they had fled. So we all believe, thus the orthodox believe. In 446 he wrote to the Church in Mauretania in regard to a number of questions of discipline, stressing the point that laymen were not to be appointed to the episcopate.[5]. More modern historians debate other possible reasons for Attila's sudden withdrawal. Other bishops are his assistants in this great task. He became an archdeacon under Pope Sixtus III, after whose death Leo was unanimously elected Bishop of Rome. He was well-educated, but yearned for the spiritual life. For there is no proper place for sadness, when we keep the birthday of the Life, which destroys the fear of mortality and brings to us the joy of promised eternity. "Pope: Leo the Great Defended the Primacy of Rome". Pope St. Leo the Great. Pope Leo was the first pope to call himself the successor to St. Peter. [4], Soon after assuming the papal throne Leo learned that in Aquileia, Pelagians were received into church communion without formal repudiation of their errors; he censured this practice and directed that a provincial synod be held where such former Pelagians be required make an unequivocal abjuration. Besides, the whereabouts of Aëtius at that time are unknown, and Attila or his warriors may have felt endangered by their arch-enemy from the Catalaunian plains. Hence, he was taught reading and writing and was well-versed in science and philosophy. In his In Nativitate Domini, Christmas Day, sermon, "Christian, remember your dignity", Leo articulates a fundamental dignity common to all Christians, whether saints or sinners, and the consequent obligation to live up to it: Our Saviour, dearly-beloved, was born today: let us be glad. Leo I (c. 400 – 10 November 461), also known as Leo the Great, was Bishop of Rome from 29 September 440 until his death. [15] Another near-contemporary was the historian Priscus who records that Attila was dissuaded from attacking Rome by his own men because they feared he would share the fate of the Visigothic king Alaric, who died shortly after sacking the city in 410. The Council of Chalcedon of 451 rejected the heresy of Eutyches who denied the true human nature of the Son of God, and affirmed the union in his one Person, without confusion and without separation, of his two natures, human and divine. [20], Leo died on 10 November 461 and, as he wished to be buried as close as possible to the tomb of St Peter, his body was placed in a tomb in the portico of Saint Peter's basilica. Amen. Not much is known of St. Leo I’s life before his pontificate, but we know he was a deacon of the Church in Rome and was sent on a diplomatic mission to Gaul (modern-day France). The Tome of Leo was a central document debated during the Council, and was eventually accepted as doctrinal. Almost 100 sermons and 150 letters of Leo I have been preserved. To Leo the Great, Mariology is determined by Christology. Pope Leo I.jpg 414 × 587; 99 KB Saint Leo Church (Columbus, Ohio), exterior, detail of statues depicting Pope Leo the Great and the Holy Spirit.jpg 2,847 × 3,844; 4.57 MB Saint Leo's Church - Baltimore 06.JPG 4,608 × 3,456; 8.16 MB Leo I (THE GREAT), Saint, POPE (440-61), place and date of birth unknown; d. November 10, 461. [1][21] Next to Leo only one other pope, Gregory, is also recognized as Doctor of the Church.[22]. "[7], He succeeded in having an imperial patriarch, Timothy Salophakiolos, and not Timotheus Aelurus, chosen as Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria on the murder of Greek Patriarch Proterius of Alexandria.[4]. A Pope of firsts. Leo drew many learned men about him and chose Prosper of Aquitaine to act in some secretarial or notarial capacity. The distinguished ambassadors visited the Hun's camp near the south shore of Lake Garda. This page was last edited on February 18, 2016, at 02:29. In 452, by the persuasive power of his words, he stopped Attila the Hun from pillaging Italy. About Pope Leo III: Rather than keeping the papacy independent of secular authorities, Leo deliberately took steps to ally with Charlemagne and his growing empire. His feast was once celebrated in Rome on 28 June, the anniversary of the placing of his relics in Saint Peter's Basilica, but in the 12th century, the Gallican Rite feast of 11 April was admitted to the General Roman Calendar, which maintained that date until 1969. Leo's writings (both the sermons and the letters) are mostly concerned with theological questions concerning the person of Jesus Christ (Christology) and his role as mediator and savior (Soteriology), which is partially connected to the Council of Chalcedon in which Roman legates participated in Leo's name. Hans Feichtinger: Die Gegenwart Christi in der Kirche bei Leo dem Großen, Frankfurt 2007, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 20:06. Patroclus of Arles (d. 426) had received from Pope Zosimus the recognition of a subordinate primacy over the Gallican Church which was strongly asserted by his successor Hilary of Arles. Mary would only be the mother of God, and Christians would have no hope for their own resurrection. These were difficult times for the Church, when heretics assaulted Orthodoxy with their false teachings. On the one hand, Peter stood before him with a claim on how Leo is to exercise his office; on the other hand, Leo, as the Roman bishop, represented the Apostle, whose authority he held. The nucleus of Christianity would be destroyed. [6] Faced with this decree, Hilary submitted to the pope, although under his successor, Ravennius, Leo divided the metropolitan rights between Arles and Vienne (450). He became an archdeacon under Pope Sixtus III, after whose death Leo was unanimously elected Bishopof Rome. He actively promoted the convening of the Fourth Ecumenical Council, at Chalcedon in 451, to condemn the heresy of the Monophysites. The Emperor refused to surrender Honoria, and it is not recorded that money was paid. The Pope and members of his clergy, went to meet the invader to implore him to desist. Pope St. Leo the Great died on Nov. 10, 461. Leo's letters and sermons reflect the many aspects of his career and personality and are invaluable historical sources. In a letter to the bishops of Campania, Picenum, and Tuscany (443) he required the observance of all his precepts and those of his predecessors; and he sharply rebuked the bishops of Sicily (447) for their deviation from the Roman custom as to the time of baptism, requiring them to send delegates to the Roman synod to learn the proper practice. Pope Leo X died fairly suddenly of pneumonia at the age of 45 on 1 December 1521 and was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. Pin. [citation needed]. Only his divinity would have been crucified, buried and resurrected. Alois Grillmeier: "Christ in Christian Tradition", vols. [13], Leo assumed the papacy at a time of increasing barbarian invasions; this, coupled with the decreasing imperial authority in the West, forced the Bishop of Rome to take a more active part in civic and political affairs. Christ, however, always comes out as the source of all grace and authority, and Leo is responsible to him for how he fulfilled his duties (sermon 1). Feeling that the primatial rights of the bishop of Rome were threatened, Leo appealed to the civil power for support and obtained, from Valentinian III, a decree of 6 June 445, which recognized the primacy of the bishop of Rome based on the merits of Peter, the dignity of the city, and the legislation of the First Council of Nicaea; and provided for the forcible extradition by provincial governors of any bishop who refused to answer a summons to Rome. Johann Peter Kirsch sees this commission as a proof of the confidence placed in the able deacon by the Imperial Court. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, Macmillan 1923, p. 295-6. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09154b.htm, St. Leo the Great, pope and doctor of the church, Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes, Collected works by Migne Patrologia Latina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Leo_I&oldid=1000592620, Ancient Christians involved in controversies, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. So taught the Apostles. The pope may have offered Attila a large sum of gold or Attila may have had logistical and strategic concerns: an army probably laden with booty from plunder; a plague in northern Italy; food shortages; military actions of the Eastern Emperor Marcianus on the Danube frontier. He was one of the first bishops of Rome to promote papal primacy based on succession from Peter the Apostle; and he did so as a means of maintaining unity among the churches. )", Acts of the Council, Session II (continued). The Catholic Encyclopedia. In 688 his remains were moved inside the basilica itself. Anathema to him who does not thus believe. In response, the emperor sent three envoys to negotiate with Attila: Gennadius Avienus, one of the consuls of 450, Memmius Aemilius Trygetius, the former urban prefect, and Leo. Watch this video from Dr. Taylor Marshall with the Top 10 things to know about him. He became a deacon and occupied a important position with St. Cyril of Alexandria. Pope St. Leo the Great, Letter 16, Oct. 21, 447, #6: “In a case of necessity any time is allowable for baptism. [16] Paul the Deacon, in the late 8th century, relates that an enormously huge man dressed in priestly robes and armed with a sword, visible only to Attila, threatened him and his army with death during his discourse with Leo, and this prompted Attila to submit to his request.[17]. He is perhaps best known for having met Attila the Hun in 452 and persuading him to turn back from his invasion of Italy. Raphael's The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila. That is one reason that the council was never recognized as ecumenical and was later repudiated by the Council of Chalcedon. Little is known of the specifics of the negotiations, as a result of which Attila withdrew. Saint Leo the Great, also known as Pope Saint Leo I, was born into a Roman aristocratic family. Basil Studer: Art. Leo’s pontificate, next to that of St. Gregory I, is the most significant and important in Christian antiquity. Pope St. Leo the Great. FAQs, The Letters and Sermons of Leo the Great, Bishop of Rome, https://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Leo_the_Great&oldid=122806. "Leo the Great" redirects here. As Pope, St. Leo the Great was forceful and unambiguous in his Christological teaching which affirmed the full divinity and humanity of Christ. Pope Leo was … "St. Leo the Great, Pope", Kirsch, Johann Peter. The Eastern Catholic Churches as well as the Eastern Orthodox Church celebrate Saint Leo on 18 February. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. — Pope Leo I “ The Church is a virgin, the bride of one Spouse, Who is Christ, and this Church does not allow herself to be violated by any error; so that, throughout the whole world there may be for us one uncorruptedness of a single chaste communion. But we are at a loss to know what considerations were offered him to induce him to depart. He further associated the practice of fasting with charity and almsgiving particularly on the occasion of the Quattro tempora, (the quarterly Ember days).[3]. In his letters to the emperor and others he demanded the deposition of Eutyches as a Manichaean and Docetic heretic. Let us put off then the old man with his deeds: and having obtained a share in the birth of Christ let us renounce the works of the flesh. This is the faith of the fathers. Share 30. Peter participates in everything which is Christ's; what the other apostles have in common with him they have through him. Leo was born in AD 400 in Tuscany, Italy. Why do we call Pope St. Leo “the Great”? Leo's pontificate, next to that of St. Gregory I, is the most significant and important in Christian antiquity. Bishop Turibius of Astorga, astonished at the spread of the sect in Spain, had addressed the other Spanish bishops on the subject, sending a copy of his letter to Leo, who took the opportunity to write an extended treatise (21 July 447) against the sect, examining its false teaching in detail and calling for a Spanish general council to investigate whether it had any adherents in the episcopate. 30 Shares. Tweet. Plague broke out in the barbarian host and their food ran short, and at the same time troops arrived from the east, sent by Marcian to the aid of Italy. But whatever terms were arranged, he did not pretend that they meant a permanent peace. Holding office in the late fifth century, Pope Leo I was the first to be called the “Great”—and for good reason. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Leo I (Latin: Leo Primus; c. 400 – 10 November 461), also known as Leo the Great, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 45th Pope from 29 September 440 to his death on 10 November 461. He was in particular one of the basic defenders of Orthodoxy against the heresies of Eutyches and Dioscorus of Alexandria, who taught that there was only one nature in the Lord Jesus Christ. By the mystery of Baptism thou wert made the temple of the Holy Ghost: do not put such a denizen to flight from thee by base acts, and subject thyself once more to the devil’s thraldom: because thy purchase money is the blood of Christ, because He shall judge thee in truth Who ransomed thee in mercy, who with the Father and the Holy Spirit reigns for ever and ever. About this time Cyril of Alexandria appealed to Rome regarding a jurisdictional dispute with Juvenal of Jerusalem, but it is not entirely clear whether the letter was intended for Leo, in his capacity of archdeacon,[3] or for Pope Celestine I directly. His rhythmic prose style, called cursus leonicus, influenced ecclesiastical language for centuries. "[9][10][11], Leo firmly declined to confirm their disciplinary arrangements, which seemed to allow Constantinople a practically equal authority with Rome and regarded the civil importance of a city as a determining factor in its ecclesiastical position; but he strongly supported its dogmatic decrees, especially when, after the accession of Leo I the Thracian (457), there seemed to be a disposition toward compromise with the Eutychians. Pope St. Leo the Great died on Nov. 10, 461. His death came just 10 months after he had excommunicated Martin Luther, the seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation, who was accused of 41 errors in his teachings. Most ancient and medieval historians celebrated Leo's actions, giving him all the credit for this successful embassy. For all intents and purposes, the Western Empire was in total political and military collapse and there was a vacuum of political leadership. [citation needed], After the undecisive outcome at the Battle of Chalons in 451, Attila invaded Italy in 452, sacking cities such as Aquileia and heading for Rome. Let the saint exult in that he draws near to victory. An appeal from Chelidonius of Besançon gave Leo the opportunity to assert the pope's authority over Hilary, who defended himself stoutly at Rome, refusing to recognize Leo's judicial status. The following year, Leo led a delegation to negotiate with the barbarian king Attila, successfully preventing an invasion of Rome. 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